Friday, 06 March 2015
Du er her: Forsiden Omega-3
Rich in Omega-3 from Phospholipids Print E-mail

JFM SUNILE AS krill oil – ColdSea™ – is extracted from the Antarctic krill species Euphausia superba, which is rich in omega-3. Moreover, the omega-3 in krill oil is mainly in the omega-3 phospholipid form, which research suggests is a preferred dietary supplement when compared to omega-3 in triglyceride form. Marine omega-3 in dietary supplements is mostly derived from fish, such as fish body oil and cod liver oil, which provide omega-3 in triglyceride form. The omega-3 obtained from eating fatty fish such as salmon also provide some omega-3 in the phospholipid form.


“The omega-3 in krill oil is mainly in the omega-3 phospholipid form, which research suggests is a preferred dietary supplement when compared to omega-3 in triglyceride form” 


Fatty acids in the body

– more than energy storage

The human body contains large amounts of fatty acids. A general distinction can be made: Phospholipid fatty acids are key structural and functional components of cells throughout the body, whereas specialized adipose tissue cells – the body’s energy storehouses – store triglyceride fatty acids. Because omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids cannot be synthesized in the body, dietary intake of these essential fatty acids influences their relative concentration in adipose tissue storage.



– key structural and functional roles

Phospholipid fatty acids are key structural components of human cells and cell organelles and play a vital role in membrane functioning. Systemic transport path­ways and, especially, the transport of molecules across cell membranes and sub-cellular membranes involve phospholipids. Thus, the functioning of the body’s cells, tissues, and organs is affected by the bioavailability of various phospholipid fatty acids.


Changes in the Western diet

– reduced intake of phospholipids

Food sources and their nutrient values have changed tremendously over the past century in western cultures. In fact, while the human genome most likely has changed insignificantly over the past 10,000 years, the foods eaten in industrialized countries are a far cry from the staples consumed when mankind evolved. Reasonable assumptions are that “primitive” diets provided phospholipids in greater abundance than the current Western diet and that humans evolved such that phospholipids are the preferred source of omega-3. The current Western diet provides only small amounts of phospholipids; dietary phospholipids represent only 5 percent of total lipid intake, of which very little is in the form of omega-3 phospholipids.


Digestion and absorption of omega-3 phos­pholipids

Triglycerides and phospholipids are digested and absorbed in different ways in the small intestine. Omega-3 phospholipids follow simpler digestion and distribution routes than omega-3 triglycerides in the human body. Greater bioavailability and bioefficiency of omega-3 phospholipids relative to omega-3 triglycer­ides influence cellular absorption, functioning and dis­tribution of omega-3.

Triglycerides are insoluble in water; their digestion by enzymes and subsequent absorption in the small intestine requires emulsification by bile salts via the formation of micelles.



Phospholipids are not dependent on bile for diges­tion; they can spontaneously form micelles and be conveyed in an aqueous environment. Phospholipids can be absorbed without digestion in their intact form, or as lysophosphatidylcholine after digestion by enzymes in the small intestine. Their simpler digestion process in the small intestine before absorption is one of the factors indicating that omega-3 phospholipids offer greater bioavailability in the human body than omega-3 triglycerides. Another suggested factor is that phospholipids are directly absorbed by intestinal epithelia for distribution via blood plasma; considerable triglyceride transport involves facilitation by the lymphatic system.


After absorption in the small intestine, lysophos­phatidylcholine is reassembled (via the addition of a fatty acid) to phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcho­line is an important structural component of cellular membranes and participates in fatty acid transport in blood and across membranes. Because fatty acids are water insoluble, they can not be transported in their free form in blood; instead, lipoprotein assemblages act as a vehicle for fatty acid transport in blood. Phospholipids located along the surface of lipoproteins play important roles in fatty acid transport in blood. Human lipoproteins include chylomicrons, HDL, LDL, and VLDL.


 The size of a lipoprotein assemblage varies according to the amounts and types of fatty acids transported in it. Larger assemblages deliver fatty acids to various tissues throughout the human body, while small lipoprotein assemblages serve as “housekeepers,” bringing excess fatty acids to the liver for degradation. Omega-3 phospholipids in the lipoproteins can influence the distribution of lipoproteins in the body and, hence, the availability of fatty acids. Increased transport to and utilization of omega-3 by various tissues has been demonstrated, when delivered as omega-3 phospholipids. For example, elevated concen­trations of omega-3 in target organs, such as the brain and liver, are observed when delivered as omega-3 phos­pholipids. Thus, dietary intake of omega-3 phospho-lipids appears to play a beneficial role in the distribution of fatty acids to various body tissues.








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ColdSea ™ Novel Food Approved 100% Natural Krill Oil from Antarctic Krill.
All in one capsule: Omega-3 as water soluble Phospholipids and Astaxhanthin